Baba Farid Ji and Sheikh
|Khwaja Fariduddin Masud
Masūd Ganjshakar), popularly known as Baba
Farid and Sheikh Farid (1173–1266; also
spelled Fareed, Fareeduddin Masood,
Ganj-e-Shakar, etc.), was a Sufi saint and a Muslim
missionary from the Chishti order, living in Punjab
region of the Indian subcontinent.
|Fariduddin Masud was a great Sufi master who
was born in 1179 or 1188 AD (584
Hijri) at village Kothewal,
10 km from Multan in the Punjab region of what is now Pakistan,
to Jamāl-ud-dīn Suleimān and Maryam Bībī (Qarsum Bībī), daughter
of Sheikh Wajīh-ud-dīn Khojendī. He was one of the founding
fathers of the Chishti Sufi order.
Farid's lineage is traced
back to the second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. Though he is the
grandson of Ibrahim ibn Adham, Baba Farid received his early
education at Multan, which had become a centre for Muslim
education; it was there that he met his Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki,
a noted Sufi saint, who was passing through Multan on his way
from Baghdad to Delhi.Upon completing his education, Farīd left
for Sistan and Kandahar and went to Makkah for the Hajj
pilgrimage with his parents at the age of 16.
Once his education was over, he moved to Delhi, where he
learned the Islamic doctrine from his master, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar
Kaki. He later moved to Hansi, Haryana. When Quṭbuddīn Bakhtiyār
Kākī died in 1235, Farīd left Hansi and became his spiritual
successor, and he settled in Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan,
Pakistan) instead of Delhi. On his way to Ajodhan, while passing
through Faridkot, he met the 20-year-old Nizāmuddīn, who went on
to become his disciple, and later his successor Sufi khalīfah.
Baba Farid had three wives and eight children (five sons and
three daughters). One of his wives, Hazabara, was the daughter
of Sulṭān Nasīruddīn Maḥmūd.
The great Arab traveller Ibn Battuta once visited this Sufi
saint. Ibn Battuta says that Fariduddin Ganjshakar was the
spiritual guide of the King of India, and that the King had
given him the village of Ajodhan. He also met Baba Farid's two
Baba Farid's descendants, also known as Fareedi, Fareedies or
Faridy, mostly carry the name Fārūqī, and can be found in
Pakistan, India and the diaspora. Fariduddin Ganjshakar's
descendants include the Sufi saint Salim Chishti, whose daughter
was the Emperor Jehangir's foster mother. Their descendants
settled in Sheikhupur, Badaun and the remains of a fort they
built can still be found. One of his descendants was the noted
Sufi scholar Muhibbullah Allahabadi (1587–1648).
Fariduddin Ganjshakar's shrine darbār is located in Pakpattan.
| By using Punjabi as the language of
poetry, Farīd laid the basis for a vernacular Punjabi literature
that would be developed later.
The city of Faridkot bears his
name. According to legend, Farīd stopped by the city, then named
Mokhalpūr, and sat in seclusion for forty days near the fort of
King Mokhal. The king was said to be so impressed by his
presence that he named the city after Baba Farid, which today is
known as Tilla Baba Farid. The festival Bābā Sheikh Farād Āgman
Purb Melā' is celebrated in September each year from (21–23 Sep,
3 days), commemorating his arrival in the city. Ajodhan was also
renamed as Farīd's 'Pāk Pattan', meaning 'Holy Ferry'; today it
is generally called Pāk Pattan Sharīf.
Faridia Islamic University, a religious madrassa in Sahiwal,
Punjab, Pakistan, is named after him, and in July 1998, the
Punjab Government in India established the Baba Farid University
of Health Sciences at Faridkot, the city which itself was named
There are various explanations of why Baba Farid was given
the title Shakar Ganj ('Treasure of Sugar'). One legend says his
mother used to encourage the young Farīd to pray by placing
sugar under his prayer mat. Once, when she forgot, the young
Farīd found the sugar anyway, an experience that gave him more
spiritual fervour and led to his being given the name.
Honor in Sikhism
|Baba Farid, as he is commonly known, has his
poetry included in the
Guru Granth Sahib, the most
sacred scripture of Sikhism, which includes 123 (or 134) hymns
composed by Farid. Shri Guru Arjun Dev Ji, the 5th guru of
Sikhism, included these hymns himself in the Adi Granth, the
predecessor of the
Guru Granth Sahib.
of Faridkot in Punjab, India is named after him.
Places named after
anniversary and Urs
|Every year, the saint's death anniversary or
Urs is celebrated for six days in the first Islamic month
of Muharram, in Pakpattan, Pakistan. The Bahishtī Darwāza
(Gate of Paradise) is opened only once a year, during the time
of the Urs fair. Hundreds of thousands of pilgrims and
visitors from all over the country and the world come to pay
homage. The door of the Bahishti Darwaza is made of silver, with
floral designs inlaid in gold leaf. This "Gate to Paradise" is
padlocked all year, and only opened for ten days from sunset to
sunrise in the month of Muharram. Some followers believe that by
crossing this door all of one's sins are washed away. During the
opening of the Gate of Paradise, extensive security arrangements
are made to protect people from stampedes.. The Urs is
celebrated every year from the fifth through the tenth of
Muharram. Some of his personal belongings were taken by his
descendant Sheikh Salim Chishti , and kept in a fort built by
his descendants in Sheikhupur, Badaun, where they are preserved
in a conatiner called Pitari. To this day it is taken out
in a procession for the first six days of Muharram.
- Faridnama by Zahid Abrol, (the first-ever
Poetical Translation of Shiekh Farid's Punjabi Verses in
Urdu and Hindi Scripts), 2003 Ajanta Book, ISBN
- Sheikh Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakar Ain-e-Akbari by
Abul Fazal, English translation, by H. Blochmann and
Colonel H. S. Jarrett, 1873–1907. The Asiatic Society
of Bengal, Calcutta; Volume III, Saints of India. (Awliyá-i-Hind),
- Pakpattan and Baba Farid Ganj-i-Shakar, by
Muhammad Abdullah Caghtai. Kitab Khana Nauras, 1968.
- Baba Sheikh Farid: Life and teachings, by
Gurbachan Singh Talib. Baba Farid Memorial Society, 1973.
- Baba Farid (Makers of Indian literature), by
Balwant Singh Anand, Sahitya Akademi, 1975.
- Baba Farid-ud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakar, by Jafar
Qasimi. Islamic Book Foundation. 1978.
- Sheikh Baba Farid aur unka Kavya, by Jayabhagavan
Goyal. 1998, Atmarama & Sons. ISBN 81-7043-081-X.
- Savanih hayat Baba Farid Ganj-i Shakar, by Pir
Ghulam Dastgir Nami. Madni Kutub Khanah.
- Baba Farid Ganjshakar, by Shabbir Hasan Cishti
Nizami. Asthana Book Depot.
- Love is his own power: The slokas of Baba Farid.
1990, ISBN 81-7189-135-7.
- Hazrat Baba Farid-ud-Din Masood Ganj Shakar, by
Sheikh Parvaiz Amin Naqshbandy. Umar Publications, 1993.
- Baba Farid di dukh–chetana, by Sarawan Singh
Paradesi. 1996, Ravi Sahitya Prakashan, ISBN 81-7143-235-2.
- Hymns of Sheikh Farid, by Brij Mohan Sagar. South
Asia Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8364-5985-7.
- Sheikh Farid, by Dr. Harbhajan Singh. Hindi
Pocket Books, 2002. ISBN 81-216-0255-6.
- " Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab " by R. M. Chopra, Iran
Society, Kolkata, 1999.
Sources - http://www.wikipedia.com